Updated: May 6, 2019
Bioprotectant with Multifunctional Microorganisms: A New Dimension in Plant Protection" (from the Journal of Biopesticides Vol1)
By Lalithakumari Janarthanam
Efficacy of SumaGrow-F2 over Conventional Fertilizer:
In another green house experiment, the effect of the SG-F2 formulation was evaluated on selected crops Keeping 50% NPK 20-20-20 conventional fertilizer application as control. Plant height, total number of leaves, leaf area, leaf color, flowering time, fruiting time and number of fruits/weight of fruits/grains and shoot and root biomass were used as tools for evaluation of the multi functional microbial formulations under green house conditions. The test crops were also monitored for the incidence of pest and diseases during the crop period. Monthly observations were made up to the crop period. All data were subjected to statistical analysis (ANOVA 11). Field Experiments to evaluate SG-F2 multi functional poly microbial formulation (BSEI Inc.2009-2012).
Results and Discussions:
The conventional fertilizer was reduced to 50% and compared with SG-F2 combined with 50% fertilizer. SumaGrow-F2 only (Tl) and SG-F2 with 50% NPK 20:20:20 (T3) were assessed over fertilizer only NPK50% (T2) control and the results are presented in Table 2. Various parameters taken here are plant height, chlorophyll content and total yield. The SG-F2 treated corn plants were tall and green with broad and long leaves. Interesting observations are the development of more number of brace roots in the SG-F2 treated plants (results not included) developing into the soil forming more silt roots. Further SG-F2 treated plants showed an early tassel and silk emergence. The cobs (earheads) matured 20 days before the plant which received 50% NPK. In fertilizer only treatment the brace roots were still suspending around the nodes above ground not penetrating into soil. The fertilizer treated plants further showed a higher incidence of spider mite attack when compared to the SG-F2 treatment with and without 50% fertilizer. Production of both tassel and silk were delayed in the fertilizer treated control and there was only one cob per plant while there were two cobs/plant in all the replications in SG-F2 with and without 50% fertilizer. The ear heads were completely filled confirming 100% total fertilization of the ear head. Like corn, soybean also exhibited distinct increase in plant height (Table 2). The vegetative stage showed a bushy canopy of green and big sized leaves.
Early flowering was observed in the SG-F2 treated soybean plants. More interestingly significant increase in pod formation was observed in SG-F2 treated plants when compared to the fertilizer treated plants. This was equally matched with the several hundreds of nodules observed in the roots of SG-F2 treated plants. Diverse root nodules of different shapes and sizes were observed. The length of the primary and the lateral roots were more in SG-F2 treated soybeans. Total number of pods and the total yield are significantly high in the SumaGrow-F2 treated plants and are correlated to the numerous nodules present in both primary and secondary roots. In soybeans mildew spots were totally absent in the SG-F2 treatment, while the fertilizer 50% treated plants showed severe infection. Number of main-stem nodes and biomass increased in SG-F2 treatment with increased potential for early flowering and therefore longer reproductive period. Sumagrow-F2 treated soybean showed stronger stalk, healthier plants to gain resistance to both biological and environmental stress. In general nematode infection was not observed in all treatments.
Garden bean was continuously tested with SumaGrow-F2 formulation as it was very simple that it could be infected by a wide range of nodule forming bacteria. From the beginning of many trials the garden bean showed significant growth increase when compared to the fertilizer treated plants. The chlorophyll content of the SumaGrow-F2 treated plants were more than the fertilizer control. Photosynthesis is directly correlated to chlorophyll content. Here again early flowering and fruiting was observed. Each plant developed more number of side shoots giving a bushy appearance to the plants. The beans harvested from SG-F2 treatment and SG-F2 with 50% fertilizer treatment were long, and tender when compared to a short sized beans in the 50% fertilizer control. Significant diverse root nodules are correlated to the significant growth, pod production and total yield of the SumaGrow-F2 treated beans. The maturity of the pods reached in more than 25 days before the control plants. The leaf size was broad and greener than the fertilized plant. Nodules were observed in the fertilizer treated plants but only in the later stages of growth and were very less when compared to SG-F2 treatment.
Tomato is another most important vegetable crop in the world. Tomato plants irrespective of the variety showed a distinct growth and yield when compared to SG-F2 only and fertilizer 50% control (Table 2). Repeated experiments with tomato (greenhouse) showed significant increase in growth, number of fruits/plant and also the total weight. One of the very interesting observations is the bunches of flowers produced in the SumaGrow-F2 treated plants when compared to NPK 50% control. The flowers in the SumaGrow-F2 treatment were multi petaled open and showy when compared to control. The plants treated with 50% NPK (20:20:20) the growth initially was rapid but later on the leaves started turning purple in color, which is a typical deficiency symptom of the tomato plant for want of essential nutrient. This resulted in poor yield in fertilizer treated plants. The size of the fruit and the numbers also reduced in the fertilizer control. On the other hand SG-F2 treatment with fertilizer 50% NPK showed significant increase in the total yield over 50% conventional fertilizer though the height of the plants were almost the same. Chuck Grantham (2012) reported (personal communication) his Celebrity tomato treated with 50% conventional fertilizer with SG-F2 yielded approximately 20 lbs per plant when compared to chemical fertilized tomato yield was on an average 15lbs.Fruit size on SG-F2 treated plants was two and three ozs, larger than conventional treatment. Reducing fertilizer when using products containing SG-F2 is a pivotal benefit for producers-lowering input costs and reducing the risk of over fertilization. Gravel et al. (2007) have reported the growth stimulation and fruit yield improvement of greenhouse tomato plants by inoculation with Pseudomonas putida and Trichoderma atroviride. Several reports on the exciting yield performance of tomato with the present formulation therefore confirmed to the complementary action of the multi functional microbes.
Clover: SG-F2 treatment (Tl) and SG-F2 with fertilizer (T3) showed green leaves and resulted in a fast growth with increased leaf size and chlorophyll content. The results of clover showed dramatic differences among the treatments Tl, T2 and T3. The plant height of SG-F2 only and SG-F2 with 50% conventional fertilizer was 58.9cm and 60.2 cm, respectively, while the fertilizer treated plant height was only 45.7cm. The SG-F2 treated plants showed 3-5 branches with more number of large sized leaves. SG-F2 treated clover plants were tall, branched and with broader and green leaves and appeared healthier. The results in Table 2 showed clearly the significant increase in the plant height, chlorophyll content and total yield. More interestingly, the development of root nodules was numerous. Several hundreds of root nodules were observed in SumaGrow-F2 treated clover plants, when compared to root nodules in the fertilizer treated plants. The shape of the nodules were mostly white and slender in fertilizer treated clover but in SumaGrow-F2 treated plants both white and another pinkish finger shape or fan shaped nodules were observed. Plants with increased nodules showed increased shoot biomass. The fertilizer treatment like in tomato showed an initial growth but during the later stages the color of the leaves was slightly yellowish when compared to the other treatments. Less number of root nodules was observed. Field trials conducted to validate the functional quality of SumaGrow-F2 on selective crops confirmed the Green House results.